Ghana Macro Data


This data is made available by the Centre for the Study of African Economies at the University of Oxford. Permission for use of the data for academic research is given by the Centre. We ask that the use of the data, its sources, and the financing for the surveys be acknowledged.

The data available here is for the following paper by Francis Teal:

Francis Teal, "Export growth and trade policy in Ghana in the twentieth century", The World Economy, Vol. 25, No.9, September 2002.
Published by Blackwells.


Ghana's exports on a per capita basis failed to grow over the course of the twentieth century. The reasons for this outcome are examined in this paper. It is argued that the success which characterised the period before independence was due to the combination of an open trade policy and flexible factor markets. The reversal of such policies at the time of independence was the source of the subsequent decline. While the terms of trade for Ghana's exports have fluctuated substantially there has been little change in their level over the century. Economic failure since independence has been due to domestic policies limiting export growth. The reforms of the post 1983 period have succeeded in preventing further decline; they have failed to provide a policy environment in which rapid growth of exports can occur. The nature of this policy failure is discussed.


The variables listed below are available in a Microsoft Excel file called "ghpublic.xls" (41kB), or in a plain text Microsoft Excel file ghpublic_plain (19kB). Details of the definitions of these variables can be found in the paper.


Variable name Quantity Represented
xvalus95pc Value of Total Exports per Capita in constant 1995 US$ prices
xcvalus95pc Value of Cocoa Exports per Capita in constant 1995 US$ prices
xcvol95pc Volume of Cocoa Exports per Capita (1995=100)
xncvol95pc Volume of Non-Cocoa Exports per Capita (1995=100)
pxcm95 World Price of Cocoa deflated by Import prices
pxncm95 World Price of Non-Cocoa Exports deflated by Import prices
lxcvol95pc Log of (Volume of Cocoa Exports) Index 1995=100
gxcvol95pc Growth Rate of Cocoa Exports per Capita
lxncvol95pc Log of (Volume of Non-Cocoa Exports) Index 1995=100
gxncvol95pc Growth Rate of Non-Cocoa Exports per Capita
lppcm95 Log of (Real Producer Price for Cocoa Exports)
lppncm95 Log of (Real Producer Price for Non-Cocoa Exports)
popgh Population of Ghana
usdef95 GDP deflator for US 
xusdcor Corrected Values for Total Exports in US$
xctons Cocoa Exports in Tons
pm95 Price Index for Imports 1995=100
rpi95 Retail (Consumer) Price Index 1995=100
xvol95pc Volume of Exports per Capita (1995=100)
xvol95 Volume of Exports (1995=100)