Free and Fair Elections Database

Availability

This data is made available for academic research by the Centre for the Study of African Economies at the University of Oxford.

We would ask that the use of the data and its source be acknowledged by citing: Sylvia Bishop and Anke Hoeffler 'Free and Fair Elections – A New Database'. CSAE Working Paper WPS/2014-14.

Abstract

Overview

The holding of elections has become universal but only about half of all elections have been free and fair. Electoral malpractice not only distorts the quality of representation but has implications for political, social and economic outcomes. Existing datasets either provide broad information on election quality for large panels or they provide very detailed information on electoral processes and events for a small number of elections. Our data collection effort closes this gap. We provide an assessment of elections that is closely tied to the commonly used term 'free and fair' and base this proxy on ten variables for a global panel.

Contribute data!

Collecting information about elections is a long and difficult process. The information is hard to find and even harder to confirm through independent sources. Do you have information about elections in your country? Can you confirm or update information we already have? Help us improve and grow the database:

Publications

Sylvia Bishop and Anke Hoeffler, 'Free and fair elections: A new database', Journal of Peace Research, July 2016, 53: 608-616. first published on June 1, 2016 doi:10.1177/0022343316642508

Sylvia Bishop and Anke Hoeffler 'Free and Fair Elections – A New Database'. CSAE Working Paper WPS/2014-14.

Researchers

Dr Anke Hoeffler, Sylvia Bishop

Acknowledgments

This research has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 290752.

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